Chapters 2. Anatomy 04. The cerebellum

04. The cerebellum

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The cerebellum [ 4 , 54 ] is a central nervous system organ located directly behind the brainstem. It occupies therewith the posterior cranial fossa [ 32 , 43 , 45 ] below the cerebellar tentorium [ 38 ]. The cerebellum is attached to the brainstem by three pairs of cerebellar peduncles[ 43 ]: "The Superior, The Middle and the Inferior cerebellar peduncle". The cerebellum contributes primarily to balance and motor coordination [ 53 ]. The concentric grooves that marks the surface of the cerebellum give it a multi-foliated appearance.

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The cerebellum is divided into three main lobes: anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobe [ 35, 54 ]. These lobes are subdivided into ten lobules by secondary grooves [ 4 , 43 ]. The cerebellum contains a central region "median" called: the cerebellar vermis [ 55 , 56 ], and three Deep cerebellar nuclei :  dentate, interposed and fastigii [ 38 , 54 , 57 ].

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The cerebellum shares many similarities with the forebrain: It has a peripheral cortex [ 3 , 32 , 75 ] and Deep nuclei that contain the cell bodies of neurons, It has two hemispheres [ 157 ]: right and left, and several grooves delimiting lobes.

 

The fissures of the cerebellum are deeper than those of the forebrain [ 130 ]. This expands the surface of the cerebellar cortex to almoast 75% of the cerebral cortex [ 4 ]!


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Chapters 2. Anatomy 04. The cerebellum